The Committees of the Polish Academy of Sciences serve as bodies representing various research circles and disciplines. Their members, elected by the research communities in specific fields (physicists, biochemists, sociologists, etc.) include scientists of the Polish Academy of Sciences of respective disciplines, outstanding research workers of higher education establishments, research centers of the Polish Academy of Sciences, departmental research units and of economic and social organizations. They serve in an advisory capacity on issues related to technology, engineering, biology, medicine, Earth sciences, social sciences, humanities, agricultural sciences, etc. They draw up position statements and expert studies for the needs of Polish public administration, and assist in resolving specific science-related issues. They also issue opinions on new legal regulations meant to affect science, its applications, and education. They likewise work to promote broader awareness of research findings and also support the development of specific fields.

The number of committees is not fixed, with new ones being set up in response to problems pertaining to the development of science or of the country, which the voice of scientists may prove helpful in deliberating.

Most of the committees are affiliated with a particular Division, although some – 18 at present – are instead affiliated directly with the Presidium of the Academy.

There are three kinds of committees of the Polish Academy of Sciences: